Input and output are central concepts to computing - in order to be able to accomplish a computational task, a program must typically process some input and produce some output. Input and output may be presented in a variety of ways. For example, many programs communicate with users through a graphical user interface, or GUI. In the simplest case, the user performs some action, such as clicking the mouse on a button, thus signaling an event. A method in the program then responds to that event by reading information that the user has typed into various controls on the GUI, and processes that information. It may then provide output to the user by writing results to various controls on the GUI.
Such a simple presentation of input/output (or I/O) is far too limiting, however. For example, other mechanisms such as dialogs - secondary windows designed for exchanging specific information - may be used to avoid cluttering the main window. In other cases, the amount of data that needs to be exchanged is too large to be transferred through a GUI. In such cases, the program may need to read and/or write a file. This chapter addresses these more advanced I/O mechanisms.