## Introduction to Stacks

A stack provides last-in-first-out (LIFO) access to data items. We usually think of a stack as arranging data items vertically, like a stack of trays in a cafeteria. Access is normally provided only at the top of the stack; hence, if we want to add an item, we push it onto the top, and if we want to remove an item, we pop it from the top. Because we only access the top of the stack, the item that we pop is always the remaining item that we had pushed the most recently.

The .NET Framework provides two kinds of stacks. One is the Stack class found in the System.Collections namespace. This class provides a stack of objects. Because every type in C# is a subtype of object, we can push any data items we want onto a Stack. The most commonly-used public members of this class are:

• A constructor that takes no parameters and constructs an empty stack.
• A Count property, which gets the number of elements on the Stack as an int.
• A Push method, which takes a single parameter of type object, and pushes it onto the top of the Stack.
• A Peek method, which takes no parameters and returns the element at the top of the Stack (as an object) without changing the Stack’s contents. If the Stack is empty, this method throws an InvalidOperationException.
• A Pop method, which takes no parameters, and removes and returns the element at the top of the Stack (as an object). If the Stack is empty, this method throws an InvalidOperationException.

As we mentioned above, because the Push method takes an object as its parameter, we can push any data elements we want onto a Stack. What this means, however, is that the compiler can’t determine the type of these elements when we retrieve them; i.e., both the Peek and Pop methods return objects. Thus, for example, the following code will not compile:

Stack s = new Stack();
s.Push(7);
int n = s.Pop() + 1;


The problem is that the Pop method returns an object, and we can’t add an int to an object. Although it’s pretty easy to see from this code that Pop will return 7, in many cases it’s impossible to know at compile time the exact type of the element returned (for example, the Stack may be a parameter to a method, and that method may be called by code that has not yet been written). Consequently, the compiler simply uses the return type of Pop - it doesn’t even try to figure out the type any more precisely.

If you want to use the value returned by Pop or Peek as something other than an object, you need to tell the compiler what its type actually is. You do this with a cast:

int n = (int)s.Pop() + 1;


This tells the compiler to assume that the value returned by Pop is an int. The type is still checked, but now it is checked at run time, rather than at compile time. If the runtime environment detects that the value is not, in fact, an int it will throw an InvalidCastException.

Often when we need a stack, the data items that we wish to store are all of the same type. In such a case, it is rather awkward to include a cast whenever we retrieve an item from the stack. In order to avoid this casting, the .NET Framework provides a generic stack, Stack<T>, found in the System.Collections.Generic namespace. The T within angle brackets is a type parameter - we may replace it with any type we want. This type tells what type of elements may be placed in this stack. For example, if we want a stack that will only contain ints, we can write:

Stack<int> s = new Stack<int>();


This class has members similar to those listed above for the non-generic Stack class, except that the Push method takes a parameter of type T (i.e., whatever type we placed within the angle brackets in the type declaration and constructor call), and the Peek and Pop methods each return a value of type T. As a result, the following is now legal code:

Stack<int> s = new Stack<int>();
s.Push(7);
int n = s.Pop() + 1;


We will show how you can define your own generic types in “Implementing a Stack”. First, however, we want to work through two example applications of stacks. We will do that in the next two sections.